Richard Stockton College Athletic Training

Common Athletic Injuries
 Following is some information on injuries that athletes frequently encounter.
It is brief and to the point, not a detailed medical analysis of an injury.  Therefore use
the information accordingly.

Primary Links
Comeback Athletes
Certified Staff
Insurance Info
Visiting Team Info
Student Staff
Former Staff
Published Articles
Our Links
Outside Links
Athletic Injuries

Secondary Links
Sports Nutrition Newsletter
Sport Psychology Newsletter
Rehab in Action
Rehab Wall of Fame
The ACL Page
Athletic Training Survey
Sports Medicine Symposium
Athletic Injury Update
Rehab Archives

Fast Facts:
The rotator "cuff" muscles insert around the head of the humerus much like a shirt "cuff" wraps around the wrist.
Impingement Syndrome
By Rob Rosa, MPT.  Rob is a Graduate of the Physical Therapy Program at Stockton.  He was also a student athletic trainer for 5 years.
The shoulder is the most complex joint in the human body.  It is designed primarily for mobility, which allows the athlete to perform the precise and efficient motions necessary in many sports including throwing, striking, and reaching.  However, the structure of the shoulder that gives you so much mobility, sacrifices joint stability.  This lack of stability makes you vulnerable to several shoulder instability injuries, one of which is impingement syndrome. 

What is it? 
Impingement is a compression or grinding of tendons or bursa found within the shoulder joint.  Normally there is a space between the humerus and the acromion (lateral tip of the shoulder).  However, with inflammation or with overuse injuries, this space may get smaller and the tendons and bursae in the joint may become pinched with movements.  As with any syndrome, there are several possible causes to the pain felt with impingement in the shoulder. 

It hurts where? 
Sharp shoulder pain will be felt throughout an arc with overhead activities including throwing and reaching.  This painful arc usually begins when the arm is lifted to shoulder level.  As the condition worsens, the pain may become a dull ache throughout the entire motion.  If the supraspinatus tendon is being impinged the anterior/lateral aspect of the shoulder will present with pain.  The same symptoms occur when the subacromial bursa (a friction-reducing pad in the shoulder) is being impinged.  If the infraspinatus tendon (part of the rotator cuff) is being irritated you will be tender to touch on the back part of your shoulder when you reach across your body with the painful arm. 

How does it happen? 
In most athletes, impingement syndrome is an overuse injury.  Throwing athletes tend to have laxity in the shoulder joint from repetitive overhead activities which causes the shoulder structures to become stretched.  The rotator cuff muscles can stabilize this laxity but when they become fatigued the tissues between the humerus and the acromion get compressed and microtrauma results.  Other causes include , poor posture, faulty positioning of the scapula, and structural variations in the shoulder complex. 

Injury Progressionů 
Initially the pain will be felt near the tissue structures being impinged, on resisted muscle contraction, and when the tissue is stretched.   If left untreated a painful arc will be felt with overhead activities and weakness or poor endurance in the scapular stabilizers and rotator cuff muscles will be noted.  Impingment syndrome is classified clinically in three stages: 

Stage 1: swelling and pain from tissue compression 
Stage 2: development of tendinitis. 
Stage 3: rotator cuff tear from repetitive microtrauma. 

Similar Injuries: 
Impingement syndrome is linked to several other specific injuries to the shoulder.  All athletes with impingement must be monitored for shoulder instability and shoulder subluxation and/or dislocation.  This is because the impingement may be secondary to the instability.  If significant shoulder instability is found, an orthopedic consult may be indicated to determine the exact cause and level of risk the athlete faces with a return to athletic participation.  Rotator cuff tears can occur from direct trauma to the shoulder and all athletes presenting with signs and symptoms of impingement syndrome should also be screened for rotator cuff tears. 

Ice wrapped around the shoulder for 20-25 minutes is an effective way to aid in decreasing the inflammation found with impingement.  The athlete will also benefit from a rotator cuff/ scapular stabilizier rehab program to improve endurance, strength, and proprioception (Body Blade exercises, for example).  By improving these aspects of the shoulder complex you greatly enhance the stability of the joint. The athlete will be limited in activities that aggravate the condition for at least one week.  This will be followed by a slow and carefully monitored return to overhead activities. 

Participation Status: 
1. Athletes in stage 1 will follow an ice and rehab program along with limited participation in activities that aggravate the condition. 
2. Athletes in stage 2 will follow an ice and rehab program and will be required to avoid aggravating activities for at least one week. 
3. Athletes suspected of stage 3 impingment syndrome will be referred to an orthopedist before further participation in activity will be allowed. 


Questions or comments regarding the Athletic Training Pages should be directed to 
Jon Heck at: